History of Indus Valley Civilization –
The Indus Valley Civilization is an ancient civilization, today located in northwestern India of Pakistan, the Indus Valley Civilization also known as “Sindhu Ghaatee”, developed along the banks of the Indus and the Ghaghra river. It is said that in 1856 John and William Brunton excavated for the railway from Karachi to Lahore and during the excavation, the remains of this civilization were found and after this, it was named Harappan civilization.
Why it was called Indus Valley –
The credit for the discovery of this civilization goes to Rai Bahadur Dayaram Shahni. He excavated this place in 1921 under the supervision of Archaeological Science Sir John Marshall. After which, at the time of excavation of a stupa at Mohenjodaro, another place was discovered, which revealed that this place was not limited to the Indus River alone. Similarly, it was named Indus Valley Civilization. Its major places are named Mohenjodaro, Kalibanga, Lothal, Rakhigarhi, and Harappa.
What was found in the excavation around the Indus Valley?
The Indus Valley Civilization was one of the important early civilizations of ancient times. Examples of this –
- The writing system was found in pottery,
- carved stamps, and even weights and copper tablets.
- The people of the Indus civilization also had knowledge of wheat, gram, sesame, paddy and many other types of grains and they also cultivated them well.
- According to some other evidence they are said to have reared all kinds of pets such as sheep, buffalo, goat, pigs, dogs, camels.
- The Swastika symbol is attributed to the Harappan civilization, from which it can be ascertained that it also used to worship the Sun.
- The script of the Indus civilization contained 700 letters, out of which only 400 have been traced so far.
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How did the destruction happen?
Scientists are still getting to know about the Indus Valley which ended about 4000 years ago, scientists believe that due to climate change, people here had to flee. Oxygen is found in very small amounts in the Indus river where it meets the sea, it is said that the monsoon receives heavy rains here and in summer there is a drought, due to which the people of Indus Valley had to go to the peaks of the mountains but A few days later there was a drought. This brought an end to their civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization, known as the Harappan Civilization in Pakistan’s western India, existed from 5300 years to 3300 years. The population of this civilization was more than 5000000.
Just as global warming has brought an end to the Indus Valley, known as the entire Harappan civilization, in the modern era, we should think about what crisis we may face due to global warming.